2018 Columbia Historic Preservation Society Exhibits

“Columbia Railroad” located in Banner Hall
“Tow Hill, freedom in the photographs”

Located in the original English Evangelical Lutheran Church, Columbia Historic Preservation Society is dedicated to the preservation of the river town, formerly known as Wright’s Ferry and Shawana Town. Once considered as a possible site for locating our nation’s capital, Columbia was once the gateway to the American West.

In addition to offering published articles and books on the town’s history, the museum houses a model train display, artifacts, a research room, microfilm archive, and publications pertaining to the history of this Susquehanna river town.

19-21 North Second Street
Columbia, Pennsylvania 17512

General inquiries can be directed to Christopher Vera.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Contact information:

Christopher Vera
President
717.684.2894: Office
717.572.7149 : Cell
admin@columbiahistory.net

We have volunteer opportunities available and invite the public to assist in keeping CHiPS active and open to the public!

Monthly meetings are scheduled for every first Monday of the month at 7 PM.
We also have a Membership Meeting to elect new officers once a year on the second Sunday in April.

Columbia Historic Preservation Society is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization.

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Rolex GMT-Master “Root Beer”

Root beer reminds us of simpler times – the days of pouring drinks over ice cream instead of ice cubes. But we had to grow up somehow, and luckily for us, we got something just as sweet with the Rolex GMT Root Beer bezel.
Rolex first introduced the GMT-Master in 1954 in response to the aviation world’s need for a timepiece to help pilots and crew keep track of time while traveling across multiple time zones. The result is a sports watch that includes a 24-hour bezel that corresponds to the GMT hand on the dial to track two different time zones simultaneously. Since its release, the Rolex GMT-Master has grown into an impressive collection of watches worn by everyone from professional athletes and celebrities to pilots and military personnel.
Now, it may not be as satisfying as your childhood drink, but the Rolex Root Beer GMT is certainly a fun way to indulge in a luxury watch. With that in mind, it probably goes without saying that not everyone agrees. Some Rolex GMT-Master enthusiasts find it hard to accept the idea of a brown color going further than a leather strap. However, for those who prefer root Rolex beer bezels, these replica watches are a real treat.
It’s fitting that we were first introduced to the Root Beer Bezel in the 1970s – it just feels vintage and oozes funk, doesn’t it? While it’s a cool choice, it’s also surprising. Rolex isn’t known for putting itself out there, so the Root Beer Bezel is really one of those rare instances when the brand decides to lean into the times and release something a little offbeat and different from the rest of the model portfolio.
The Rolex GMT-Master – the popular pilot’s watch since the 1950s – has been essentially a handsome but practical timepiece for the past 20 years. Around 1970, Rolex released the Ref. 16753 as the first GMT-Master. The 16753, the first replica Rolex GMT-Master, offered the Rolesor model, which is the brand’s signature stainless steel and gold combination. The watch was available in two variants, the first with a black dial and matching black bezel, and the second with a brown dial with brown and gold bezel – the first Rolesor Beer GMT-Master.

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2021 Modern Perpetual Calendar Watches

In modern watchmaking, a perpetual calendar displays the date and automatically corrects for months of less than 31 days and for leap years. Unless the movement takes into account non-leap century years, watches equipped with a perpetual calendar require manual adjustment at 2100, 2200, and 2300, but not at 2400. Usually, perpetual calendars incorporate additional complications.
Patek Philippe’s cushion-shaped perpetual calendar watch, the Ref. 5940 is now also available with a perpetual calendar function. The 5940 is also now available in a pink gold case. It houses Patek Philippe’s ultra-thin Caliber 240 Q micro-automatic movement.
In January 2017, Hermès unveiled a new model of the Slim d’Hermès Quantième Perpétuel with a platinum case and blue dial. The replica watch is powered by in-house Caliber H1950, a super-thin mechanical movement with a micro-rotor.
During SIHH 2017, Audemars Piguet unveiled the Royal Oak Perpetual Calendar with a black ceramic case and bracelet. The 41-mm-large case houses the self-winding Caliber 5134. However, a few years ago, Frederique Constant unveiled to the world the Manufacture Perpetual Calendar with a full, in-house-developed perpetual calendar, priced under $10,000.
The hand-wound Tourbillon Perpetual Calendar in platinum “Pour le Mérite” is A. Lange & Söhne’s most complicated fake watch with the attributes of a “Pour le Mérite”. The in-house movement combines five grand complications: perpetual calendar, chronograph, ratchet function, fusible chain drive, and tourbillon. The large 43mm Perpetual Calendar Tourbillon is limited to 50 pieces and is competitively priced.

2020 New Breitling Limited Re-Edition

One of the most beautiful vintage-inspired Breitling pilot watches ever, the new AVI ref.765 1953 reprint has just been launched by the famous Swiss brand. Its tradition dates back to the original reference 765 AVI, introduced in 1953, and is known as the “copilot” because of its rotating bezels and oversized numbers, making it the perfect clock for professional pilots. The new AVI ref.765 Breitling comes in three limited-edition cases: stainless steel, 18-karat red gold, and platinum. The three cases represent a major upgrade for luxury while maintaining the aesthetic of the 1950s.
Breitling dipped deep into its archives for this one, going back to the original inspiration for the ref. 765 AVI that had a design rooted in the dashboard clocks designed and produced by the brand’s Huit Aviation Department. Established in 1938 to produce onboard chronographs for various aircraft, the Huit Aviation Department played an important role in cementing Breitling’s impeccable reputation and aviation heritage.
The stainless steel and 18k red gold variants feature black dials, with the red gold version limited to just 253 pieces. The platinum edition has a striking blue dial (our favorite among the options on offer) and of which only 153 examples will be made. Sized at 41.1 mm and powered by the Breitling Manufacture Caliber B09 manually-wound chronograph movement, only 1953 pieces of the new Breitling AVI ref. 765 Re-Edition will be made, and each will be inscribed with “ONE OF 1953” on its case back.
The AVI ref. 765 1953 Re-Edition is Breitling’s second-ever historical re-edition; no doubt they were encouraged by the success that the likes of Omega have had in this field. The first was the Navitimer ref. 806 1959 Re-Edition, which was launched last year and was met with success. Both re-edition models were painstakingly crafted to be as much like the originals as horologically possible.

“There are only two concessions that distinguish this new timepiece from its well-known ancestor,” Breitling notes of the new AVI ref. 765: “the water resistance has been improved to 3 bar compared to the original version, and keen-eyed observers will also see that “GENEVE” no longer appears on the dial.” However, “It was always clear to us that long-time Breitling fans would embrace these watches,” the brand’s CEO Georges Kern states. “But it’s also exciting to see how much they appeal to new users of our brand — they only have to look at the reprint to see how much fresh history, innovation, and cool luxury we’ve incorporated into the watch.”

Rolex Announces 2021 New Watch Releases

In April, Rolex announced it would delay the launch of its new watches until 2021 until further notice, saying it had no specific launch date. At that time, many speculated that we might not see any new fake Rolex watches in 2021. This announcement, coupled with the news from the previous month that Rolex was closing its factories and facilities to help prevent the spread of COVID-19, made it seem possible that Rolex might actually be delayed unveiling its new watches altogether. Read more on the Rolex Shortage. However, to the delight of collectors and enthusiasts, Rolex has just set a 2021 release date for its new watch.
This news comes as a major relief to lots of luxury watch collectors and enthusiasts, along with countless retailers around the globe who depend on Rolex models to account for a significant portion of their annual sales. Additionally, the cancellation of Baselworld and the delay in the unveiling of Rolex’s new 2021 replica watches have also resulted in an increased amount of speculation about what the brand is going to unveil.
In addition to there being no new Rolex watches for 2021 thus far, no models have been discontinued either. This has led to many collectors speculate about what Rolex might have planned for 2021. Besides that, given Rolex’s previous and rather vague statement from April, the news that we likely will see some new Rolex watches this year has sparked much excitement from countless individuals.
Despite Rolex now officially naming a date for the launch of its new 2021 watches, this is still not a guarantee that we – the public – will actually see new models in 2021 at all. What’s more, the announcement of any new watches and their actual real-world availability may be significantly different because of Rolex previously shutting down its factories earlier in the year.
Given that these September dates are being described as what will be a coordinated global launch, there is a great chance that the public will actually get some new 2021 Rolex models then. However, there are also two other scenarios to consider:
As the global coronavirus pandemic is not yet over, there is still a lot of uncertainty about whether a pandemic will occur later this year. The first week of September does still pose a risk for significant gatherings, and should global conditions worsen, there is an opportunity that Rolex’s new September launch, along with Geneva Watch Days will ultimately get postponed or canceled altogether.
So what does Rolex have decided for 2021? At this point in time – and likely right up until September 1st (and possibly even later) – only Rolex will know. Speculation among collectors and industry insiders has never been higher; But, whatever Rolex is released or stops in 2021, one thing is certain: it will almost certainly affect the open market price of some existing Rolex watches.

What Makes Rolex so Successful? Part III

When a man can’t get what he wants, his desire reaches its climax. Ever since the early days of Daytona appeared on the wrist of Hollywood star Paul Newman, the famous Daytona has been the object of desire for many. Rolex brought about many models into the store as it expected to sell. The result is long waiting lists. The search for the world’s most ideal watch only adds to the Rolex myth.


Rolex founder Hans Wilsdorf was a marketing genius. He chose a name that was easy to pronounce in a few different languages and made sure this name was printed on the dial – not totally common at a time when customer loyalty was to the dealer, not the manufacturer. Wilsdorf called his water-resistant watch the “Oyster” and gave a Rolex to a swimmer who planned to swim the English Channel.
The story landed him a full-page advertisement on the front page of the Daily Mail. There were also ads in magazines in which a young actress submerged her hand and wrist (and watch!) into a fishbowl. Rolex marketing approaches have a more subtle touch. Beginning in the late 1970s, it emphasizes its presence in prestigious sports such as tennis and golf, automobile racing, equestrian sports, and sailing.
Rolex always makes an unforgettable and composed impression. The company stays true to its proven methods and chooses to make continuous improvements rather than pursuing the new and different. Part of the brand’s mythology rests on the fact that fake Rolex did not jump on the quartz-watch bandwagon in the 1970s. The company does not produce complicated watches such as tourbillons or repeaters, only very rarely launches new collections, and stays away from online sales. New technologies such as silicone parts in its movements are developed very slowly and used very conservatively – smartwatches or “smart” features are unthinkable. This makes the brand predictable for the customer and also protects the brand from missteps.
The company does not make a big deal when introducing new products at Baselworld each spring. While other manufacturers boldly announce world records, hold press conferences featuring celebrities, or present 70 brand-new products, Rolex quietly works on detailed improvements. Larger cases, improved movements, ceramic bezels, and now and again a new color – even innovations such as these are discussed among replica Rolex fans hotly and not without controversy. When it comes to personal contact, Rolex tends to come across as mysterious, “like an Oyster” — from its watch-making facilities in Geneva to Biel’s machinery, which clients and journalists rarely see from the inside to the end of its chief executive, who usually does not give interviews.

M&T Bank Letters

Upon the closing of the M&T Bank, Columbia branch, in June 2010, bank officers contacted the Columbia Historic Preservation Society and allowed them to search the basement area for items and records relating to the banking history of the citizens of Columbia. Little did they know of the treasures they would find: Over 700 leather-bound ledgers, letters, and booklets, most dating from the 1800s. Letters from prominent Pennsylvania citizens and everyday transactions from local citizens. Priceless treasures that peaked the imagination. The penmanship alone held a fascinating beauty. The Society is forever grateful to M&T Bank for the history they’ve shared with its citizens.
One of the more interesting finds was a treasure trove of records from the Columbia Bank and Bridge Company that was incorporated in 1812. The original charters and stocks for the company are in the Society’s possession and date back to 1814. This company built the first bridge here, in 1814, spanning the Susquehanna (but was eventually destroyed by a flood). The second bridge was built in 1832 and was burned. The Columbia Bank and Bridge Company held meetings up until 1856 and had little recorded activity thereafter until 1864-when the most famous bridge-burning took place on June 1863, marking a major turning point in the Civil War. In 1868, a replacement bridge was built but was destroyed by a hurricane in 1896.
Among other records discovered were original letters of deposition from two citizens of Columbia – Robert Crane and John Q. Denny. The letters recounted incidents of the day the bridge was burned to prevent Confederate troops from crossing into Columbia, June 28, 1863. The involvement of each man was told under oath in the presence of the local Justice of the Peace. Because the bridge was owned by Columbia Bank and Bridge Company, these depositions were necessary to be compensated for the government’s involvement in the destruction of the bridge.
These letters provide insight into Columbia’s role during the Gettysburg Campaign of the Civil War. The bridge was burned by Columbia residents, and the Pennsylvania state militia, to stop the Confederate soldiers of Northern Virginia from entering Lancaster County. General Lee had hoped to invade Harrisburg from the rear and move eastward to Lancaster and Philadelphia in order to destroy railroad yards and other key industries.
Union forces under the command of Colonel Jacob. G. Frick and Major Granville O. Haller were forced to burn the bridge, thereby blocking the route to Lancaster and Harrisburg. Confederate troops were forced to withdraw to Gettysburg to regroup with General Lee. If the bridge had not been burned the armies would never have met at Gettysburg where the Rolex battle was fought and the course of the Civil War was determined.

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A very Special Rolex Sea-Dweller Watch

A Sealab diver reported the problem to Rolex and suggested adding a pressure-relief valve to safely release the helium gas seep into the watch. Rolex then developed its helium escape valve, which will be used by many other branded watches.
Rolex got down to working with the French diving specialist Comex in the early 1970s and supplied watches to all Comex divers, who then shared their experiences and helped with the ongoing development of the watches. Comex laid underwater cables, took care of diving work on oil rigs, and salvaged shipwrecks. In the process, they developed their own special tools and experimented with breathing mixtures of gases.
Comex set various depth records and a Rolex replica Sea-Dweller was on the wrists of their divers as they subjected themselves to each torturous trial. In 1972, two divers withstood 50 hours in a pressurized chamber measured at 610 meters deep. Later, Comex employees worked in the ocean at more than 500 meters, and in 1992, a Comex diver achieved a depth of 701 meters inside a pressure chamber. What Comex really needed was the Sea-Dweller with its three times higher water resistance and a helium escape valve.
In the mid-1960s, Rolex supplied Comex with particularly equipped Submariner models to test the helium escape valve. Today, these “Rolex Comex” watches (Ref. 5514) are as expensive as they are rare. The Sea-Dweller went into mass production in 1967, equipped with a helium escape valve. The new model was able to withstand pressure to a depth of 610 meters. It remained similar in design to the Submariner. With a current diameter of 43 mm and a height of 15 mm, and with the replica Rolex Cyclops date magnifier, the watch looks much like an enlarged Submariner but with continuous 60-minute markers on the divers bezel and red lettering on the dial.
The maximum depth limit remained unchanged until 2008 when the Deepsea model was introduced with a water resistance of 3,900 meters. Rolex has developed an entirely new casing design to ensure that the watch is not too big despite its huge water resistance. Its patented “Ringlock” system consists of three factors that can take the pressure: a 5.5-mm-thick sapphire crystal, a 3.28-mm grade 5 titanium case back, and an inner ring made of BioDur 108 steel. The system is surrounded by a 904L steel Rolex in the use case. The titanium case is fitted with the pressure of the inner ring through the 904L rebar case ring.

The Difference between Hulk and Kermit

Putting the two replica watches side by side makes it easy to understand why Rolex Hulk is called the Hulk. The Hulk debuted in 2010, and its color is particularly outstanding. 116610LV then appeared on Rolex Kermit, and both on the bezel and dial. However, this is not just as simple as changing black to green. Actually, the surface of the Hulk dial does not have the “sunburst” effect like the ordinary green glossy dial, similar to the blue dial. The dial fits the two-color and golden yellow versions of Rolex Submariner.
Another big upgrade was to change the material of the frame panel from aluminum to Cerachrom (ceramic), which was an exciting new technology back then. Because of its high scratch resistance and no impact from corrosion and discoloration, ceramic is a better choice for modern watches. Although the Hulk case has the same diameter as the Kermit case, it is actually worn very differently on the wrist, although the case diameter is 40 mm. To introduce a new ceramic bezel, Rolex has updated the Submariner’s case to extend the protection of its lugs and crown (known as the “Rolex Super Case”). When the case diameter remains the same at 40mm, the updated ratio will create a larger overall appearance and angular appearance. watches for lady
Rolex does not often make enormous alternations to its classic replica watches. Therefore, there is no doubt that the Hulk Submariner was treated with caution when it was first released, and has a fervent Rolex collector Reserved. However, just like Kermit, in the years since the Hulk was released, fans of Rolex Submariner have fully accepted the all-green Hulk, and it has become a highly sought-after collection.
So how do choose between Hulk and Comite? Although both fake watches are Rolex Submariner green watches, there are still some significant differences between them. The Kermit is older than the Hulk, and because it is a previous generation product, it cannot provide the same modern conveniences as the Hulk currently produced.
In addition to different bezel materials, dial colors, and case proportions, the Oyster bracelets of these two watches are also very different. The bracelet on Kermit has a hollow middle link and an embossed clasp with a folding wetsuit extension. Despite the similar appearance, the redesigned Oyster bracelet on the Hulk has a fully secure link and a machined Oyster bracelet safety buckle with the brand’s Glidelock expansion system, which can be used up to 2mm The increment of the instant adjustment (maximum about 20mm).

Best Rolex GMT-Master Blue/Black Bezel Watch

Rolex gets funny when it mentions upgrades to its latest generation of watches. You would think they’d be louder when discussing new features, but the truth is that Rolex is careful not to make their older watches look less sought-after. “A Rolex is always a Rolex” according to… well, Rolex. I’m not saying it is enough for 116710 generation GMT-Master II owners to “upgrade,” but for those who are keen to wonder what fake Rolex made differently, then it is more than just a band and a movement for the newest generation GMT-Master II.
Recall that the case is water-resistant to 100 meters, with a sapphire crystal and a Cyclops magnifier window over the date window. Now let’s talk about the movement a bit. We already discussed the movement when introducing the GMT-Master II 126710 back in 2019, but I will give you the basic details again. The movement inside the newest-generation GMT-Master is the in-house-made caliber 3285 automatic, which is the GMT version of Rolex’s 32XX generation of movements. The automatic movement operates at 4Hz, now 70 hours of power reserve. It also includes Rolex’s “Superlative Chronometer” rating, which is a stack of both third-party COSC Chronometer ratings and more stringent in-house performance testing by Rolex. What I really appreciate about Rolex’s Superlative Chronometer rating is that it comes with unique performance promises, one being accuracy to within plus/minus two seconds a day.
All Rolex movements perform pretty well, so aside from the increased power-reserve rating, I have a feeling that most replica Rolex wearers will not notice too much difference in terms of the movement operation from the last GMT-Master II generation to this most current 126710 family. While traveling, the wearer can independently adjust the hour hand, which helps adjust the local time when moving to different time zones.
A fair question to ask is whether or not one should seek out this blue and black 126710BLNR or the red and blue 126710BLNO — as they both cost and do the same things. In some senses, it is a matter of style and taste. It is also important to mention that both replica watches are currently very challenging to purchase at retail. That sort of implies that, for most buyers, the one they purchase is the one that they find available. The enduring advice is that consumers should not pay more than the retail price, because in recent years speculators have been known to buy available, popular timepieces quickly and then try to resell them immediately at a premium. Such behavior will only benefit these speculators and should be avoided by most consumers.

2020 Rolex Watches Undervalued Used

This may be a bit hard to believe, but there are still several Rolex models that can be described as understated. If all you are used to looking at are the newest versions of pieces such as the Submariner, Daytona, or GMT-Master II, we can see why you would be doubtful, but it is true. Delving into the archives, there are hosts of used Rolex replica watches that, for one reason or another, have remained relative bargains. This may be because they have never had the most famous name, so only call for a more segmented group of fans, or it is a version that has been produced on the market for so long with countless examples, and could be something else entirely.
However, one thing we are pretty sure of is that they are unlikely to stay undervalued forever. The vintage Rolex industry just gets stronger and stronger each year, with collectors always seemingly on the hunt for the more obscure pieces for their exclusivity factor. Today’s underappreciated model could well be tomorrow’s next big thing. Below we look at three used Rolex watches that are currently undervalued on the pre-owned market. If you’ve been following these models for a while, it’s wise to add them to your collection as soon as possible.
Maybe the most obvious example of an undervalued model, the Air-King ref. 5500 easily meets two of the most important criteria. It lives amongst those watches sometimes referred to as the ‘forgotten Rolex’ and it remained in production for an incredible 37-years. That means you will find some of them for sale, and often at extremely reasonable prices.
The fourth generation of the Air-King range, it was firstly launched in 1957 and is the one that cemented the classic look of the watch – a 34mm steel case, with an aesthetic that is simplicity itself. Dial colors kept to the conservative end of the spectrum; white, black, silver, blue, and grey, with plain stick hands and baton indexes. Not even a date function interrupted the symmetry.
During its near four-decade run it was issued with two different calibers, the Cal. 1520 and Cal. 1530. As neither was COSC-rated, you won’t find a ref. 5500 with the usual ‘Superlative Chronometer Officially Certified’ text on the face. On the contrary, they are marked with ‘Precision’ or ‘Super Precision’ in the special space below the hands.
The largest draw of the ref. 5500 has always been its clean. This is old-school fake Rolex, the type of fake watch they rarely make anymore. This car is sturdy, but still very elegant, and it’s the right size for men and women everywhere. On top of that, the historically engrossed model is the cheapest of any used Rolex, old or modern, which is definitely a factor to consider.